ALLAH, The Exalted, Promulgated Fasting Laws

"It is a religious observance that lasts for a fixed number of days. But those of you who are sick or proceeding on a journey shall compensate the fast by the same number of days at a later date. As for those who experience hardship caused by fasting, they appease Allah by expiation of feeding an indigent. Nonetheless, he who voluntarily offers to commit good shall find benevolence and benefaction indeed rewarding; and if you are able to fast, it profits you, if only you knew."
[2:184 - Al-Muntakhab]

The Prophet (pbuh) has said:

[Bukhari, Book #31, Hadith #118] "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "fasting is a shield (or a screen or a shelter). So, the person observing fasting should not behave foolishly and impudently, and if somebody fights with him or abuses him, he should tell him twice, 'I am fasting." The Prophet added, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the smell coming out from the mouth of a fasting person is better in the sight of Allah than the smell of musk. (Allah says about the fasting person), 'He has left his food, drink and desires for My sake. The fast is for Me. So I will reward (the fasting person) for it and the reward of good deeds is multiplied ten times."
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